Keywords: Bangga Kencana, management, Kampung KB
In 2015, the Government of Indonesia expressed the expectation for a stronger population and family planning program management in support of the Indonesian president’s nine vision also known as Nawa Cita. The population and family planning programs are especially relevant to vision 3, concerning development of peripheral areas; vision 5, concerning the improvement of the quality of life; and vision 8, concerning the overhauling of the character of the nation. These mandates have been responded to by the National Population and Family Planning Board (BKKBN) as the public institution that is responsible to deliver population and family planning interventions through an innovative program called “Kampung KB”.
The Healthy Family Village (hereafter Kampung KB) has been adopted into a national program and inaugurated by President Jokowi, with an inauguration ceremony that took place in Martasinga fishing village in Gunungjati District of Cirebon Regency. The government targets to form 536 model Kampung KB, one in every regency/municipality in Indonesia.
From the perspective of BKKBN, Kampung KB is the mini version of Indonesia’s human capital development. To further examine this area, the development of human capital in Indonesia tends of focus on physical development and quantitative output instead of quality. Kampung KB was created to address this gap in non-physical development and to drive a mindset transformation in the society so that they can break the chain of poverty that has been keeping them trapped.
The premise that development tends to focus on physical outputs has been widely known. Law Number of 2014 on Village affords village administrators (heads of sub-village, heads of village, government staff members) the authority to manage village funds, and the question now is to what end? In practice, village development has been predisposed to physical projectsm, such as the construction of roads, buildings, and entrace gates. Meanwhile, non-physical programs that seek to address quality, such as capacity building through training and awareness-raising activities are rarely heared.
In this situation, it is crucial that we transform a kind of mentality that is rooted in the society, particularly a segment of the society that is poor and marginalized – known as galcitas, an abbreviation of tertinggal (disadvantaged), terpencil (remote), and di perbatasan (at the border). To lift these communities is the core mission of Kampung KB.
As the leading sector and institution, BKKBN by design emphasizes not only on areas where poverty and poor living conditions are rampant, but also areas with high fertility rate. These are areas families have low to no awareness in controlling their family size, which results in the high birth rate in that area. This, combined with poor social quality, will only hinder and be a burden to the national development.
Kampung KB, which incorporates the ‘mental revolution’, a mindset transformation process, expects to help the poor to step out of the cycle of poverty. Without a change of mindset, the poor may never be able to change their situation. Instead, sustained poverty will only reproduce more poverty. Poor parents give birth to poor children, and as adults they marry their poor neighbors to then give birth to their own poor children. As the result, we will only see a vicious cycle of perpetuated poverty among poor families.
The Kampung KB that the Government of Indonesia initiated through BKKBN has now been formed in 16,420 sites as per 2020 data. The program has been established in different administrative levels of the society – neighborhood and villages alike. Under Kampung KB, family development, population, and family planning interventions are introduced and various stakeholders engaged, including public institutions from different sectors. Kampung KB has become the axis of social improvemnent interventions to address cross-cutting issues and promote the welfare of the communities it serves.
Kampung KB has also grown into a mini-model of Bangga Kencana, and its cumulative success would contribute to the Bangga Kencana national outcomes. It is unfortunate, however, the not all Kampung KB sites are able to follow through the program as intended. This is caused by a variety of factors both internally, such as Kampung KB’s management and organizational capacity, and external factors. Nevertheless, efforts to amplify the role and presence of Kampung KB to improve the welfare of the society have continued. One concrete step is to identify champions in the program, or model Kampung KB, as a way to drive the success of Bangga Kencana.
A model Kampung KB is similar to any other Kampung KB sites. However, it is distinct due to its success in implementing population interventions, as well as other interventions, and in empowering families. The management and activities that are taking place in a model Kampung KB can provide important lessons for other Kampung KB sites. Today, there are 478 model Kampung KB, nine are located in the Special Region of (DI) of Yogyakarta
Activities and Segmentation in a Model Kampung KB
A model Kampung KB, established at the administrative level of a sub-village (dusun), provides a framework for population-based development. The program engages public stakeholders at district and village levels as well as the citizens. Kampung KB accommodates family development, population, and family planning (together abbreviated into Bangga Kencana) interventions, taking into account other sectors such as health, education, housing, and. environment.
The goal of Kampung KB is to improve the physical and spiritual well-being of community members by linking this goal with the fundamental concept of an ideal family size of two parents and two children. The holistic approach stems from the reality that there are families who have not been able to improve their welfare level, despite their participation in the family planning program – thus having only two children. This is because minimizing the number of children is only a step, among other efforts, in achieving holistic well-being, and this needs to be followed by a change of mindset, attitude, and behavior.
While the core program of family planning is to reduce fertility rate and natality, it is only one of five pillars of family planning as part of the efforts to reduce poverty and to improve welfare, as articulated in Law Number 52 of 2009 concerning Population and Family Development. The other four pillars are: delaying age at first marriage, strengthening family resiliency, economic epowerment, and community development.
With respect to the five pillars, the interventions under Kampung KB are not focused only on increasing family planning participation. Focusing on this goal alone would limit the intervention’s target on couples in reproductive age, more specifically women who are married up to 49 years old. The five pillars, however, ensure a holistic program beneficiary targeting to all elements of a community regardless of age.
Several activities under Kampung KB, and its model sites, are designed with age segmentation in mind. First, is the three-prong interventions of BKB, BKR, and BKL. BKB, or Bina Keluarga Balita, is an intervention that targets families with children under five and that provides parenting education for that age group. BKR, or Bina Keluarga Remaja, targets families with adolescents (age 13 to 24 years old/have not married) and promotes healthy parenting for the families. Finally, BKL, or Bina Keluarga Lansia, targets families with elderly family members (age 60 years old and above), and provides information and awareness-raising on how to care for elderly members in the family. These interventions, together called Tribina, aims to strengthen family resiliency.
The second intervention is the PIK-R, or the Center of Information and Counseling for Adolescents, that specifically target secondary school-age students and invidiuals up to 24 years old, or have not been married. PIK-R is a forum from, by, and for adolescents where they learn to be peer counsellors and peer educators. The aim is to protect adolescents from triple risks of reproductive health in adolescents: sexual relationship with multiple partners, drug abuse, and HIV/AIDS. The program also aims to prepare the adolescents for family formation in the future. Moreover, under the Kampung KB framework, PIK-R aims to delay the age at first marriage.
Third intervention is the UPPKS, Usaha Peningkatan Pendapatan Keluarga Sejahtera, an income improvement intervention through home industry enterpreneurship. UPPKS is a collective business forum with poor families as the primary target members. UPPKS’ business activities may receive capital assistance in the form of low-interest loan from a cooperative of UPPKS member associations (AKU). Additionally, the UPPKS can also apply for loans to financial institutions (e.g. the Activity Management Unit/UPK at the district level). UPPKS also has capacity building opportunities, such as mentoring and training. UPPKS aims to realize economic empowerment in the community.
Fourth, the IMP, or rural community institution, a forum that manages village volunteers to assist family planning (FP) field extension officers in promoting FP programs. They coordinate with the extension officers and act in the frontline of FP delivery. The volunteers’ role is focused on information sharing and awareness-raising about FP program, especially contraceptives. They may also distribute pills and condoms to acceptors. The volunteers (at village level, or PPKBD, and at smaller neighborhood level, or sub-PPKBD) support birth spacing and awareness-raising in the community as far as their authority allows.
The programs above are expected to synergize with other interventions such as early childhood education center (in the education sector), community-based healthcare for children under-five and the elderly (the health sector), and women farmers’ groups, as well as between their respective officers in the sub-village and village (volunteers, community leaders, religious leaders, IMPs) as well as district levels (field extension officers, primary health facility workers, etc.). Together, they are expected to work to change the mindset, attitude, and behavior of rural communities through extension, development, and mentoring activities.
Managing Model Kampung KB
There are nine model Kampung KB sites in Yogyakarta; two are located in Gunung Kidul Regency, namely Kampung KB Ngalangombo and Margo Mulyo; two in Sleman Regency, namely Kampung KB Malangrejo and Sengir; two in Kulon Progo Regency, namely Kampung KB Ngramang and Sendangsari, and three in Bantul Regency, namely Mertosanan, Cembing dan Jasem.
Table 1. Distribution of Model Kampung KB in Yogyakarta
|Sengir||Sleman||Urban fringe, rural|
|Cembing||Bantul||Urban fringe, rural|
|Mertosanan||Bantul||Urban fringe, rural|
|Jasem||Bantul||Urban fringe, rural|
|Sendangsari||Kulon Progo||Urban fringe, rural|
|Ngramang||Kulon Progo||Urban fringe, rural|
Source: Report on Model Kampung KB, 2020
Geographically, the model Kampung KB sites in DI Yogyakarta have different characteristics. The Ngalangombo and Margomulyo sites are located in the hills, somewhat remote and are far from the regency’s center. Meanwhile, the Malangrejo site is located in the urban fringe area. From the social and cultural perspective, the sites in the urban fringe aras are unique, as the inhabitants are exposed to both urban and rural life. In terms of economic development, urban fringe areas are also transitioning from agricultural to non-agricultural activities. Moreover, the urban fringe is also characterized by the high rate of poverty, the highly populated areas that are growing more dense, and economic activity expansion; this area attracts more tourism investments due to its lower land price compared to prices in the city centers. Other model Kampung KB, including Sengir, Cembing, Mertosanan, Jasem, Sendangsarim, and Ngramang are all located in a rural setting. Agricultural activities are te predominant source of livehood for the majority of houeholds. These areas are not ‘remote’ per se, because accessibility is fairly easy, but geographically they are farther and are outside the urban areas.
The locations of Kampung KB sites in the fringe, be it urban or rural fringe and in the hills, reflect the commitment to develop peripheral areas. It is common knowledge that the periphery/remote/outermost regions were not prioritized in the national development due to their low economic potentials. As the result, these areas are associated with poor economic situation and welfare. Nevertheless, the presence of model Kampung KB is expected to drive development in the regions, thereby elevating people’s welfare.
In terms of program scope, the majority of model Kampung KB sites in Yogyakarta are situated at the sub-village (dusun) level. The chart below shows that around 50 per cent of model Kampung KB are situated in sub-villages. This indicates the significant coverage of model Kampung KB, as a sub-village consists of several neighborhoods, and the coverage indicates the potential reach of Kampung KB’s interventions. Ideally, a model Kampung KB should be able to cover all sub-villages under a village for several reasons. First, the majority of cross-sector and cross-agency programs are carried out at village legel. Second, adopting Kampung KB to villagel leve, there will be greater opportunity of integrating the program with other programs. Third, program integration may generate even greater impact to community welfare. There are also Kampung KB that covers a smaller scope, as it is situated at the hamlet level, or RW (rukun warga). The RW-level Kampung KB accounts for 37 per cent of all model Kampung KB sites and need to be motivated to expand to sub-village, or even village level. Meanwhile, the model Kampung KB at village level contributes 13 per cent to the entire model Kampung KB.
Source: Report on Model Kampung KB, author’s compilation, 2020
The model Kampung KB sites in Yogyakarta are equipped with sufficient facilities: a Kampung KB secretariat as well asthe place and facilities to accommodate the BKB, BKR, BKL, UPPKS, and PIK-R activities, and a data house. The availability of facilities were assessed and a Kampung KB is considered “excellent” if all components are available and “good” if one of the components is missing. Based on this criterion, 87 per cent of model Kampung KB sites in Yogyakarta are in the “excellent” category. In all locations, the secretariat and facilities to accommodate all interventions are available.
Table 2. Facilities in Model Kampung KB in Yogyakarta, 2020
Model Kampung KB
|Kampung KB Ngalangombo||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|Kampung KB Margo Mulyo||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes||Not available||Yes|
|Kampung KB MalangRejo||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|Kampung KB Sengir||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|Kampung KB Cembing||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Kampung KB Mertosanan Kulon||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|Kampung KB Jasem Srimulyo||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|Kampung KB Sendangsari||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|Kampung KB Ngramang Kedungsari||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes|
Source: Report on Model Kampung KB, 2020
Other than the supporting facilities described above, the successful journey of model Kampung KB cannot ignore the role of a working group (WG). Table 3 below indicates the presence of a WG in every Kampung KB site, the WG’s credential (a letter of decision that formally establishes the WG), and the availability of a mentor. All locations of model Kampung KB in Yogyakarta have their respective WG. The main duty of a WG is to accelerate development through government programs. WG is formally established by virtue of a decision letter – a legal basis for the WG to exercise its function and a tool to build trust among the community towards the WG.
Table 3. WGs in Model Kampung KB in Yogyakarta, 2020
Kampung KB Percontohan
Presence of WG
WG with formal decision letter
|Availability of extension officers as mentors|
|Kampung KB Ngalangombo||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|Kampung KB Margo Mulyo||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|Kampung KB Malangrejo||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|Kampung KB Sengir||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|Kampung KB Cembing||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|Kampung KB Mertosanan Kulon||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|Kampung KB Jasem Srimulyo||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|Kampung KB Sendangsari||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|Kampung KB Ngramang Kedungsari||Yes||Yes||Yes|
Source: Report on Model Kampung KB, 2020
The field extension officers play a critical role in the development of a model Kampung KB. They facilitate and oversee the activities or interventions introduced on the ground. The capacity and skills of the officers greatly determine the quality of program delivery. BKKBN appears to be aware of this need, and is actively providing capacity, knowledge, and skills building of extension officers through various training, workshops, seminars, and other educational activities.
In generall, the interventions in the model Kampung KB in Yogyakarta can be grouped into two categories: interventions under the Bangga Kencana framework and interventions under cross-sector programs of the government. Image 3 below shows the variety of interventions in model Kampung KB sites. The intensity of Bangga Kencana interventions vary from site to site. Kampung KB Jasem and Ngramang are two sites with the highest intensity of Bangga Kencana interventions with 25 and 22 activities, respectively, and then followed by Ngalangombo, Sengir, and Sendangsari.
Despite the varying degree of intensity, these sites share one commonality, in that they all receive interventions relating to family planning and reproductive health. The activities under these interventions include contraceptive services, family planning promotion, promotion on contraceptives and their benefits, and a mobile service of long-acting contraceptives that include the insertion and replacement of implants and IUDs.
Source: Report on Model Kampung KB, author’s compilation, 2020
Meanwhile, a site such as Ngramang appears to receive more interventions from other than Bangga Kencana program. Until end of September 2020, data shows 18 cross-sector interventions in Ngramang. This indicates further progress in the Kampung KB site, as there is higher opportunity for program integration. One challenge that may need to be anticipated is the likelihood of contradicting policies between local agencies or the regional apparatus organizations (OPD). It is also possible that one village receives two separate pilot programs, resulting in higher ceoncentration of interventions in a particular village.
Model Kampung KB, as described above, is part of the efforts of realizing President Jokowi’s nine vision, particularly vision three, “to develop Indonesia from the peripheral areas by strengthening the villages”, and vision five, “to improve the quality of life of Indonesians”. These visions are directly in line with Kampung KB’s goals of creating families and society with physical and spiritual well-being, as the leading causes of poverty in rural and marginalized areas (at the central and subnational level) is typical: difficult access, and as the result development activities take place primarily in urban areas. Consequently, there is little opportunity for communities in these areas to access adequate consultation, information, and education activities to improve their knowledge and skills – two things that are urgently needed in order to lift their livelihoods and quality of life, and eventually promote their well-being.
The target to have model Kampung KB across all regencies/municipalities, even perhaps all districts in the future, can be a wake-up call for the government and state apparatus at the national and regional level (the regencies, districts, and villages) that equitable development is non-negotiable. The communities in disadvantaged, remote, and border regions are Indonesian citizens that deserve our attention, and that development process should not discriminate. In addition, it is equally important not to be too focused on physical facilities and infrastructure while ignoring human capital development and character building. This is a criticism to local political leaders (regents/mayors, heads of village/heads of suburb village) who prioritize physical development as a tool to build their political image for the purpose re-election. It is true that human capital development and character building as embodied by the Kampung KB do not engender immediate physical benefits in the short term. Instead, the results will be seen in the next twenty years, as the generation of our children takes over the duty of the nation, continuing the endeavor that we start in safeguarding and managing this country.
BKKBN. (2003). Profil Institusi Masyarakat Pedesaan dan Penyuluh Keluarga Berencana. Jakarta: BKKBN.
Law of the Republic of Indonesia Number 52 of 2009 regarding Population and Family Development.